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Slumming is slang for patronizing an establishment or location mainly occupied by those well below one’s own socio-economic class, usually for the sake of entertainment or adventure. Illicit dealings or miserliness might also be reasons for slumming. The term is often associated with bars or restaurants, (e.g. “Let’s go slumming at The Red Canteen,”) or with infamous neighborhoods that have earned undesirable reputations.
Although slumming is used in modern slang, the idea of slumming for entertainment has been around for well over 100 years. In the 1840s, tours through notorious slums such as “Five Points” New York mark a time when slumming was in vogue. (This locale was depicted in Martin Scorsese’s 2002 film, Gangs of New York.)
London’s most infamous serial killer Jack the Ripper murdered several prostitutes in the autumn of 1888, many from a poor section of London known as Whitechapel. Tours soon brought middle-class Victorians through the impoverished area to see firsthand where so many of the shocking murders occurred.
While it might seem absurd and even voyeuristic to pay for tours through slums, the practice is gaining ground today. Some call it “reality touring,” “slum touring,” or instead of tourism, “poorism.” The idea is to get away from whitewashed tourist areas for a true taste of life as it really is for millions of people every day.
The current trend towards slum tourism is largely attributed to Marcelo Armstrong of Brazil, who in 1992, began taking tourists to Rochina, a large shantytown or favela in Rio de Janeiro. Slum tourism continues to grow in Brazil, India, Mexico, Africa and other countries. By some accounts, operators reportedly hope to bring awareness (and in some cases cash) to the areas, while critics find “poorism” distasteful. According to one article in the New York Times published March 2008, at least some of the tourists who have been on slum tours claimed the experience changed their lives.
While slum touring might be infused with an altruistic purpose for some, this isn’t the case with “slumming.” The pejorative word can be used with humor, however, to refer to an establishment or locale that is middle or upper class but not up to the standards of the one referring to it. For instance a celebrity who regularly shops on Rodeo Drive might joke about slumming at the Beverly Center; or a soccer Mom might quip about slumming at a discount department chain rather than shopping at the mall.
Generally, however, “slumming” is a daredevil act that implies a certain amount of risk and danger. It is an anticipated colorful experience that takes people from their comfort zones and drops them into another environment for sheer kicks, for “street creds” (street credibility), or for other similar reasons.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is "slumming" in the context of tourism?
"Slumming" refers to a trend where tourists visit impoverished urban areas to observe firsthand the living conditions of local residents. This form of tourism is often controversial as it raises ethical questions about exploitation and voyeurism. Critics argue that it turns poverty into a spectacle, while proponents claim it can raise awareness and lead to positive engagement. It's important for travelers to approach such experiences with sensitivity and respect for the communities involved.
How does slum tourism impact the communities being visited?
Slum tourism can have both positive and negative impacts on local communities. On one hand, it can bring economic benefits through job creation and increased spending in the area. On the other hand, it can lead to the commodification of poverty and exacerbate social inequalities. According to a study in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism, slum tours can contribute to local economies, but the benefits are often unevenly distributed (Sharpley & Telfer, 2015).
Are there ethical ways to engage in slum tourism?
Engaging ethically in slum tourism involves choosing tours that are respectful, informative, and beneficial to the local community. Tourists should seek out operators that work directly with residents, offer fair wages, and invest in community projects. Additionally, visitors should be mindful of their behavior, avoiding taking photos without consent and treating residents with dignity. Responsible slum tourism should aim to foster cross-cultural understanding and support sustainable development.
What are some alternatives to slum tourism for travelers interested in social issues?
Travelers interested in social issues can explore alternatives to slum tourism, such as volunteer tourism, where they can contribute to community projects, or educational tours focused on history and social movements. Participating in cultural exchange programs or supporting social enterprises in disadvantaged areas are other ways to engage responsibly. These alternatives can provide deeper insights into local challenges without turning poverty into a tourist attraction.
How can travelers prepare for a slum tour to ensure a respectful experience?
Travelers can prepare for a slum tour by researching the area and selecting a reputable tour operator with a track record of ethical practices. It's crucial to understand the social dynamics and history of the community before visiting. Travelers should also be open to learning and listening, rather than just observing. Engaging with locals through conversation, with their consent, can lead to a more meaningful and respectful experience for both the visitor and the host community.